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Series: Evolution and Medicine

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TALKS IN THIS SERIES (40)

Fundamentals of Evolution and Medicine
Play '1. Evolution: Medicine's Missing Basic Science (59 mins)'
1. Evolution: Medicine's Missing Basic Science (59 mins) More info
Prof. Randolph Nesse  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • How evolution is useful to medicine
  • Why doctors don't know evolution
  • The body: perfect and pathetically flawed
  • Proximate and evolutionary explanations
  • Explain vulnerability, not diseases
  • Six reasons for vulnerability
  • Darwinian medicine growing fast
Play '2. Evolution and Medicine: From the Perspective of an Evolutionary Biologist (38 mins)'
2. Evolution and Medicine: From the Perspective of an Evolutionary Biologist (38 mins) More info
Prof. Stephen Stearns  –  Yale University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • How we are mismatched to modernity
  • Birth control and cancer risk
  • Impact of early-life events on late-life obesity and diabetes
  • Hygiene and autoimmune disease
  • Evolutionary conflicts that produce reproductive problems
  • Evolutionary technologies used in medicine
  • The evolutionary principles and mechanisms underpinning these examples
Play '3. Developmental Plasticity, Evolution and the Origins of Disease (31 mins)'
3. Developmental Plasticity, Evolution and the Origins of Disease (31 mins) More info
Dr. Mary Jane West-Eberhard  –  Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Costa Rica

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Developmental plasticity
  • Genes and environment in development
  • Adaptive developmental decisions and their betrayal if conditions change
  • Phenotypic accommodation
  • Multiple pathways
  • Myth of single gene control
  • Blueprints and programs as false metaphors
  • Cross-generational continuity of the phenotype
  • Origins of novel phenotypes including disease

Evolutionary Genetics
Play '4. Genetic Variation and Human Disease (47 mins)'
4. Genetic Variation and Human Disease (47 mins) More info
Dr. David Houle  –  Florida State University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Proximal vs. ultimate causation
  • Causes of death in modern societies
  • Quantifying genetic causation
  • Relative risks of common diseases
  • Fitness
  • Why do genetic diseases exist?
  • Selection can maintain disease
  • Mutation-selection balance
  • Evolutionary lag
  • Gene flow and genotypeenvironment interactions
  • Co-evolutionary arms races
  • Why evolution matters
Play '5. Evolutionary Genetic Epidemiology (52 mins)'
5. Evolutionary Genetic Epidemiology (52 mins) More info
Prof. Nicholas Schork  –  Scripps Genomic Institute of Medicine of La Jolla, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • What is 'evolutionary genetics'?
  • Evolution, genetic variation and association analyses
  • Withinspecies diversity and population genetics
  • Human genetic diversity and phenotypic variation
  • Human community 'metagenomics'
Play '6. Evolutionary Genetics: The Detection of Natural Selection Using Molecular Data (65 mins)'
6. Evolutionary Genetics: The Detection of Natural Selection Using Molecular Data (65 mins) More info
Dr. Mark Thomas  –  University College London, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Mutation and variation in populations
  • The fate of mutations under random genetic drift and natural selection
  • Measures of variation
  • Detecting signatures of natural selection in genomic data
Play '7. Ecogenetics, Evolutionary Biology and Human Disease (46 mins)'
7. Ecogenetics, Evolutionary Biology and Human Disease (46 mins) More info
Prof. Gilbert Omenn  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Ecogenetics of nutrition and cultural sensitivity
  • Is lactose intolerance/lactase persistence a disease or an evolutionary normal variant?
  • Assessment, management and communication of health risks and genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals
Play '8. Race in Genetics and Medicine (24 mins)'
8. Race in Genetics and Medicine (24 mins) More info
Prof. Jeffrey Long  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Questions about race
  • Fundamentals of DNA and the genome
  • Human genome sequence
  • DNA sequence variation
  • Three essential features of human genome diversity
  • Expected nucleotide diversity
  • STR analysis
  • Relationships among human populations
  • Major long-range human migrations
  • Definition of race
  • Allocation of individuals to genetic clusters
  • Principal pathway of ethanol metabolism
  • Allele frequencies at ALDH2 locus
  • European ancestry and diabetes risk
Play '9. Health Disparities in Common Complex Diseases: A Role for Genetics? (46 mins)'
9. Health Disparities in Common Complex Diseases: A Role for Genetics? (46 mins) More info
Dr. Kathleen Barnes  –  Johns Hopkins University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Genetic epidemiology of common, complex and chronic diseases
  • Evidence of a role for a genetic basis of health disparities
  • Genetic studies on asthma and allergic disease and ethnicity
  • Geneenvironment interactions
  • Biogeography and the hygiene hypothesis
  • Innate vs. adaptive immunity and the common variant/multiple disease hypothesis
  • Antagonistic pleiotropy

Infectious Disease
Play '10. Bacteria and Virus Evolution: A Model for the Study of Natural Selection (44 mins)'
10. Bacteria and Virus Evolution: A Model for the Study of Natural Selection (44 mins) More info
Dr. Paul Turner  –  Yale University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Experimental evolution
  • Classic experiments using bacteria and viruses
  • Evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
  • Evolution of higher and lower virulence in pathogens
  • Evolution of pathogen emergence
Play '11. Evolutionary Arms Races (39 mins)'
11. Evolutionary Arms Races (39 mins) More info
Prof. Mark Pagel  –  University of Reading, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Arms races and evolutionary arms races
  • What are they and how are they defined
  • Features of arms races
  • Who wins?: the Red Queen and the life-dinner principle
  • Common arms races in nature
  • Predators and prey, sexual selection, parent offspring conflict and host-parasite coevolution
  • HIV evolution, parent-infant resemblance in humans and genomic imprinting
Play '12. Antibiotic Resistance and Hospital-Acquired Infection (43 mins)'
12. Antibiotic Resistance and Hospital-Acquired Infection (43 mins) More info
Dr. Carl Bergstrom  –  University of Washington, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Rates and consequences of hospital acquired infection
  • History of antibiotic resistance
  • The process of natural selection
  • Mutation as a source of resistance
  • Lateral gene transfer
  • The bacterial ecology of a hospital
  • Resistance in the community
  • Agricultural use of antibiotics
  • Modeling resistance in a hospital
  • Antibiotic cycling
Play '13. Evolution of Virulence: Malaria, a Case Study (34 mins)'
13. Evolution of Virulence: Malaria, a Case Study (34 mins) More info
Prof. Andrew Read  –  Edinburgh University, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Why are infectious agents virulent?
  • Evolutionary and mechanistic explanations
  • Natural selection on malaria virulence
  • Why are malaria parasites so virulent?
  • Why not more virulent?
  • Possible selective effects of public health interventions
  • Other infectious diseases
  • Why evolutionary explanation matters
Play '14. Infection and Chronic Disease (38 mins)'
14. Infection and Chronic Disease (38 mins) More info
Prof. Paul Ewald  –  University of Louisville, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, tuberculosis)
  • Risk factors
  • Primary and secondary causes
  • Categories of disease causation
  • Risk factors and disease causation
  • The e4 allele and the thrifty genotype hypothesis
  • Geographical variations in allele frequencies
  • Pathogen vulnerability hypothesis
  • Environmental causations (smoking, high fat diet, alcohol, garlic, iron)
  • Drug treatment and atherosclerosis

Defenses
Play '15. Fever and Related Defenses (36 mins)'
15. Fever and Related Defenses (36 mins) More info
Prof. Matthew Kluger  –  George Mason University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Evolutionary history of fever
  • Role of fever in disease
  • Role of related host defenses in disease
  • Concept of Darwinian Medicine
Play '16. The Evolutionary Ecology of Immunity (45 mins)'
16. The Evolutionary Ecology of Immunity (45 mins) More info
Prof. Paul Schmid-Hempel  –  ETH Zurich, Switzerland

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Why immune defense matters
  • Asking for evolutionary reasons and constraints
  • Using immune defenses is very costly for the individual
  • The nature of the costs
  • Differences among the sexes
  • Specific defenses and their impact
  • What would be the best defense
  • Parasites are interfering
  • The consequences for medicine
Play '17. Mapping Motivations: Evolutionary Health Promotion (26 mins)'
17. Mapping Motivations: Evolutionary Health Promotion (26 mins) More info
Dr. Valerie Curtis  –  London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
Dr. Robert Aunger  –  London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Most of today's health problems can be prevented by changes in behavior
  • How understanding behavior, and behavioral motivation in particular, from an evolutionary perspective can provide new avenues for health promotion
  • Example of how an evolutionary insight into the disgust motivation led to an effective handwashing campaign in Ghana

Novel Environmental Factors
Play '18. What did humans evolve to eat? evolutionary perspectives on human nutritional health  (39 mins)'
18. What did humans evolve to eat? evolutionary perspectives on human nutritional health (39 mins) More info
Prof. William R. Leonard  –  Northwestern University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Relevance of Evolutionary Perspective for the Study of Nutrition
  • Evolution of key human differences with the emergence & early evolution of Homo at ~2.0 mya
  • Dietary regimes in traditional human societies
  • Human Activity Patterns in Comparative Perspective
  • Conclusions
Play '19. The Original Human Diet: What was it and should it be a Model for Contemporary Nutrition? (45 mins)'
19. The Original Human Diet: What was it and should it be a Model for Contemporary Nutrition? (45 mins) More info
Prof. S. Boyd Eaton  –  Emory University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Human evolution
  • Contemporary genetic-lifestyle discordance
  • Ancestral nutrition as a model for the present
  • Current American nutrition
  • Successes (life expectancy) and failures ('afflictions of affluence')
  • The paradigm concept
Play '20. The Paleolithic Lifestyle and Prevention of Chronic Disease (42 mins)'
20. The Paleolithic Lifestyle and Prevention of Chronic Disease (42 mins) More info
Prof. S. Boyd Eaton  –  Emory University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Stone Age genes and Space Age lives
  • Chronic degenerative diseases
  • Case illustrations: from dental caries to diabetes
  • Paleolithic health promotion: deviation from the basics of ancestral life increases disease risk whilst reversion reduces it
Play '21. Early Nutrition, Development and Health: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Metabolic Syndrome (49 mins)'
21. Early Nutrition, Development and Health: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Metabolic Syndrome (49 mins) More info
Dr. Christopher Kuzawa  –  Northwestern University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • The thrifty genotype hypothesis
  • Metabolic scaling in mammals
  • Energy partitioning in humans
  • The developmental bottleneck of weaning
  • Baby fat as a brain buffer
  • How fat and insulin resistance protect the brain
  • Why prenatal undernutrition induces the metabolic syndrome
  • Implications for adaptation and global disease change
Play '22. The Hygiene Hypothesis (42 mins)'
22. The Hygiene Hypothesis (42 mins) More info
Prof. Graham Rook  –  University College London, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Definition of the hygiene hypothesis
  • Gene-environment interactions
  • Protection from allergic disorders by the farming environment
  • Changing incidences of allergic disorders, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Deficient regulatory T cell activity in chronic inflammatory disorders
  • Environmental microorganisms, immunoregulation and mammalian evolution
  • Changing microbial exposure in developed countries
  • Regulatory T lymphocytes and regulation of inflammation
  • Animal models
  • Cellular mechanisms
  • Clinical trials
Play '23. Diseases of Civilization: An Evolutionary Legacy (31 mins)'
23. Diseases of Civilization: An Evolutionary Legacy (31 mins) More info
Prof. Alan Weder  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • There is a mismatch between what we were originally selected for and our modern environment
  • The 'diseases of civilization' result from this mismatch
  • Hypertension is a prototypic disease of civilization
  • Many factors mediate the interaction between genes and the environment to promote hypertension

Problems Arising From Constraints and Trade-Offs
Play '24. Aging and Evolutionary Medicine (51 mins)'
24. Aging and Evolutionary Medicine (51 mins) More info
Prof. Linda Partridge  –  University College London, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Declined mortality in industrialized societies
  • Maximum human longevity
  • Werner's syndrome
  • Common age-related pathologies
  • The force of natural selection declines with age
  • Mutationaccumulation theory
  • The pleiotropy or trade-off theory
  • Evolutionary theories of aging
  • Aging in different organisms
  • Testing the theories
  • Interventions that slow aging in diverse organisms
  • Insulin/IGF-like signaling
  • Genetic effects on lifespan
  • Extension of lifespan by dietary restriction
Play '25. Human aging and menopause (46 mins)'
25. Human aging and menopause (46 mins) More info
Prof. Kristen Hawkes  –  University of Utah, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Aging (senescence) our evolved life history
  • Global maximum life expectancy
  • Women living past fertility in different populations
  • Effects of longevity
  • Depending on mothers & grandmothers
  • Comparing humans and chimpanzees
  • Age-specific fertility rates
  • Female fertility in mammals
  • Germ cells by age
  • Parity decline
Play '26. Why we Cook with Spices: Preventative Darwinian Medicine (32 mins)'
26. Why we Cook with Spices: Preventative Darwinian Medicine (32 mins) More info
Prof. Paul Sherman  –  Cornell University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Evolution of chemicals that give spices their unique flavors
  • All spices have antimicrobial properties
  • Use of spices in human cultures
  • Foodborne illnesses
  • In every country and culture, people learn to enjoy the tastes of the spices that are most effective because of their beneficial (antimicrobial) effects on food safety and thus health

Sex and Reproduction
Play '27. Evolutionary Obstetrics (44 mins)'
27. Evolutionary Obstetrics (44 mins) More info
Prof. Wenda Trevathan  –  New Mexico State University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Human evolutionary history
  • Human evolution and childbirth
  • Birth in other primates
  • How anatomical changes for bipedalism impact birth
  • Birth in early human ancestors
  • The helpless human newborn
  • The evolutionary legacy of birth
  • Why women benefit from assistance at birth
  • Value of emotional support during labor and delivery
Play '28. Sex Differences in Mortality (41 mins)'
28. Sex Differences in Mortality (41 mins) More info
Dr. Daniel Kruger  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Senescence
  • Reproductive strategies and mortality
  • Contemporary and historical sex differences in mortality rates
  • Male competition and sex differences in mortality rates within a society, across societies and across time in societies undergoing socio-economic changes
Play '29. The Endocrinology of Human Life History Transitions (46 mins)'
29. The Endocrinology of Human Life History Transitions (46 mins) More info
Prof. Peter Ellison  –  Harvard University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The energy allocation model of life history evolution
  • Quantitative variation in energy allocation to reproduction
  • Endocrine control of qualitative, state transitions in human life history
  • Three example transitions: postpartum resumption of ovarian function, puberty, birth
Play '30. Genetic Conflicts in Human Pregnancy (43 mins)'
30. Genetic Conflicts in Human Pregnancy (43 mins) More info
Prof. David Haig  –  Harvard University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The association of maternal provisioning of a fetus and opportunity cost
  • The relationship between maternal investment in fetus to the benefit to the fetus and the cost to its siblings
  • The maternal-fetus unit: genes and their direct benefit to the fetus and indirect cost to its siblings
  • Syndromes associated with the imprinted cluster of genes of human chromosome 11p15.5: Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome
  • 3 potential areas for conflict during pregnancy: whether to carry/miscarry the embryo, nutrient quality of maternal blood and the volume of blood reaching the placenta
  • Placental hormones and fetal attempts to manipulate maternal physiology for fetal benefit
  • Maternal carbohydrate metabolism: glucose and insulin levels in the maternal blood, and maternal insulin sensitivity
  • The maternal-fetus blood circulation during pregnancy and the systemic blood supply shared between them
Play '31. Environmental Effects on Human Reproduction (47 mins)'
31. Environmental Effects on Human Reproduction (47 mins) More info
Prof. Gillian Bentley  –  University of Durham, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Environmental effects on human reproduction
  • Measuring reproductive ability
  • Hormonal variation and ovarian function in different populations
  • Effect of nutrition on reproductive function
  • Effect of energetics on reproductive function
  • Effect of genetics on reproductive function
  • Developmental effects on reproductive function
  • Immunological effects on reproductive function
  • Hormones and health implications

Cancer
Play '32. A Darwinian Eye View of Cancer (54 mins)'
32. A Darwinian Eye View of Cancer (54 mins) More info
Prof. Mel Greaves  –  Institute of Cancer Research, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The prevalence of cancer: man vs. animals
  • The proximal causes of cancer: mutations and genotoxic exposures
  • Limitations of evolutionary adaptation by natural selection
  • Vulnerability to cancer from an evolutionary perspective
  • Lack of perfection in evolutionary 'engineering': faults/trade-offs
  • Evolutionary adaptation 'has no eyes to the future': mismatches between genetics and lifestyle
  • Natural selection will happen: evolution of robust cancer clones
  • The only fitness test of 'natural selectability' in evolution is survival and reproductive success: cancer risk escalation in old age
Play '33. Viruses and Cancer (56 mins)'
33. Viruses and Cancer (56 mins) More info
Prof. Robin Weiss  –  University College London, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Oncogenic viruses of animals and humans have given us insights into cancer in general
  • Specific genes involved in cancer such as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were first discovered through research on tumor viruses
  • Only a subset of viruses cause cancer
  • For cancers caused by viruses, the viruses are a necessary but insufficient cause of the disease
  • Cancer is multifactorial and different risk factors act together
  • Vaccines hold great promise to reduce the cancer burden
  • The incidence is higher in immunodeficient people
  • Transplant recipients and AIDS

Specific Body Systems
Play '34. Hard Tissue Biology in Human Health and Evolution (50 mins)'
34. Hard Tissue Biology in Human Health and Evolution (50 mins) More info
Prof. Timothy Bromage  –  New York University, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Dental development
  • Enamel structure and anti-crack propagating characteristics
  • Global climate change and human tooth evolution
  • Dental and facial health issues
  • Bone structure and mechanical factors with aging
  • Bone health issues
  • Bone health in space
Play '35. Lung Biology and Lung Disease (53 mins)'
35. Lung Biology and Lung Disease (53 mins) More info
Prof. John Torday  –  Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The evolution of the vertebrate lung
  • Vertebrate evolution from unicellular organisms is reflected in lung development
  • Stretch-regulated pathways of lung development leading to homeostasis can fail, leading to chronic lung disease
  • The cell/molecular pathways that integrate lung development and homeostasis can serve to effectively diagnose and treat chronic lung disease
Play '36. Evolutionary Considerations and the Endothelium (32 mins)'
36. Evolutionary Considerations and the Endothelium (32 mins) More info
Dr. William Aird  –  Harvard Medical School, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • The endothelial organ
  • Proximate mechanisms of endothelial cell heterogeneity
  • Evolutionary mechanisms of endothelial cell heterogeneity
  • Hagfish as a model for early endothelium

Mental Disorders
Play '37. Mental Disorders in the Light of Evolutionary Biology (65 mins)'
37. Mental Disorders in the Light of Evolutionary Biology (65 mins) More info
Prof. Randolph Nesse  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Psychiatry is just now recognizing the need for evolutionary explanations
  • Same six origins of vulnerability as the rest of medicine
  • Emotional disorders are dysregulated defenses
  • Research and treatment implications
  • Towards a fully biological foundation for psychiatry
Play '38. Evolutionary Behavioural Genetics and Mental Disorders (48 mins)'
38. Evolutionary Behavioural Genetics and Mental Disorders (48 mins) More info
Dr. Matthew Keller  –  University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Ways of assessing heritability in humans: twin and adoption designs
  • The evolutionary paradox of common, heritable mental disorders
  • Possible resolutions to the paradox: balancing selection, neutral mutation and polygenic mutation-selection balance
Play '39. Evolutionary Biology of Depression (16 mins)'
39. Evolutionary Biology of Depression (16 mins) More info
Prof. Lewis Wolpert  –  University College London, UK

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Depression has a genetic component and can be triggered by stress
  • It is a common mental illness
  • Why has it not been selected out?
  • Sadness is adaptive but depression is probably not
  • Depression can be thought of as sadness becoming excessive and malignant

Questions and Answers
Play '40. Audience Questions about Evolution and Medicine (57 mins)'
40. Audience Questions about Evolution and Medicine (57 mins) More info
Prof. Randolph Nesse  –  University of Michigan, USA

TOPICS COVERED IN THIS TALK

  • Certain questions always come up
  • They reveal deep interest in the evolutionary medicine and substantial ignorance about evolution
  • Answering them fills some gaps in the rest of the lecture series
  • The future of Darwinian Medicine
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ABOUT THIS SERIES

Editor(s)

Prof. Randolph Nesse Show Biography

EDITOR BIOGRAPHY

Prof. Randolph Nesse – University of Michigan, USA

Randolph M. Nesse, MD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, where he directs the Evolution and Human Adaptation Program. He collaborated with George Williams to write several seminal works on Darwinian Medicine, including Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine. His early research on the neuroendocrinology of anxiety has been transformed into a focus on how selection shapes mechanisms that regulate defenses such as pain, fever, anxiety and low mood. He is devoted to the mission of helping to organize the growing Evolution and Medicine community via writing, speaking and EvolutionAndMedicine.org.

Publication Date  /  Last Updated

October, 2007  /  March, 2011

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